Archaeologists verify Florida’s Mound Key as location of elusive Spanish fort, Welcome to Armageddon: Meet the city behind the biblical story, Sinkhole in Rome Reveals 2,000-Year-Old Pavers. Nevertheless it is a jawdropping finding, especially when you consider that it wasn’t rediscovered until the 16th century, by Nicolaus Copernicus, who even acknowledged Aristarchus during the development of his own work. As a tool for introducing scientific measurement, the techniques of Eratosthenes are relatively easy to perform and require no special equipment, allowing those just beginning their interest in science to understand by doing, experimenting and, ultimately, following in the foot steps some of the first scientists. This story, if true, recounts the earliest known circumnavigation of Africa, but also contains an interesting insight into the astronomical knowledge of the ancient world. Later, another scientist called Posidonius (135BC to 51BC) used a slightly different method and arrived at almost exactly the same answer. Earth and moon as seen by the Galileo spacecraft. As Pythagoras had determined how the lengths of triangle’s sides were related a couple of centuries earlier, Aristarchus used the triangle to estimate that the distance to the Sun was between 18 and 20 times the distance to the Moon. ), to sail around continental Africa, in a clockwise fashion, starting in the Red Sea. Eratosthenes’ famous and yet simple method relied on measuring the different lengths of shadows cast by poles stuck vertically into the ground, at midday on the summer solstice, at different latitudes. When manually rotated by a handle, the gears span dials on the exterior showing the phases of the Moon, the timing of lunar eclipses, and the positions of the five planets then known (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) at different times of the year. Aristarchus knew the sun was much bigger than the Earth or the moon, and he may have surmised that it should therefore have the central position in the solar system. Almost as interesting as what they knew, however, is what they did not know. Aristarchus of Samos (310 B.C. When did Queen Cleopatra die and who killed her? Four Discoveries of Ancient Greek Astronomy That Still Baffle Experts 1. Gareth Dorrian, University of … Read full article. Today, we know the size and distance to the moon accurately by a variety of means, including precise telescopes, radar observations and laser reflectors left on the surface by Apollo astronauts. The Earth’s circumference The first astronomical calculator. Almost as interesting as what they knew, however, is what they did not know. Given that 7.5 degrees is 1/48th of a circle, he multiplied the distance from Rhodes to Alexandria by 48, and arrived at a value also of approximately 25,000 miles (40,000 km). This is within a couple of percent of the actual value, as established by modern geodesy (the science of the Earth’s shape). Image via Wikipedia. Four amazing astronomical discoveries from ancient Greece 1. The first astronomical calculator. argued that the sun was the “central fire” of the cosmos and he placed all of the then known planets in their correct order of distance around it. So the difference in the shadows demonstrated how much the Earth’s surface curved. He also estimated that the size of the moon was approximately one-third that of Earth, based on careful timing of lunar eclipses. Credit: NASA. Gearing technology with the sophistication of the Antikythera mechanism was not seen again for a thousand years. to... 2. The world’s oldest surviving mechanical calculator is the Antikythera Mechanism. So the difference in the shadows demonstrated how much the Earth’s surface curved. Sadly, the vast majority of these works were lost to history and our scientific awakening was delayed by millennia. For example, the size of the moon. Almost as interesting as what they knew, however, is what they did not know. The world’s oldest surviving mechanical calculator is the Antikythera Mechanism. This sets the baseline for the remarkable advances in their understanding over the next few centuries – simply relying on what they could observe with their own eyes. to 51 B.C.) Amazing astronomical discoveries from ancient Greece Plasma shield around the heliosphere. The amazing device was discovered in an ancient shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera in 1900. A 10th century reproduction of a diagram by Aristarchus showing some of the geometry he used in his calculations. This sets the baseline for the remarkable advances in their understanding over the next few centuries – simply relying on what they could observe with their own eyes. We don’t know who built it, but it dates to some time between the third and first centuries B.C., and may even have been the work of Archimedes. Gareth Dorrian & Ian Whittaker United Kingdom, April 27, 2020. As Pythagoras had determined how the lengths of a triangle’s sides were related a couple of centuries earlier, Aristarchus used the triangle to estimate that the distance to the sun was between 18 and 20 times the distance to the moon. 4. Among his many achievements was the earliest known calculation of the circumference of the Earth. It had long been observed that the sun and moon appeared to be of the same apparent size in the sky, and that the sun was further away. Aristarchus of Samos (310 BC to 230 BC) argued that the Sun was the “central fire” of the cosmos and he placed all of the then known planets in their correct order of distance around it. 4. This is within a couple of percent of the actual value, as established by modern geodesy (the science of the Earth’s shape). This observation simply did not make sense at the time because they didn’t yet know that the Earth has a spherical shape, and that there is a southern hemisphere. The device is now fragmented by the passage of time, but when intact it would have appeared as a box housing dozens of finely machined bronze gear wheels. to 425 B.C.) Sadly, the vast majority of these works were lost to history and our scientific awakening was delayed by millennia. Four amazing astronomical discoveries from ancient Greece. Amazing Astronomical Discoveries From Ancient Greece November 5, 2020 The Histories by Herodotus (484BC to 425BC) offers a remarkable window into the world as it was known to the ancient Greeks in the mid fifth century BC. Four Amazing Astronomical Discoveries From Ancient Greece May 3, 2020 / by Ἀλέξανδρος The Histories by Herodotus (484 BC to 425BC) offers a remarkable window into the world as it was known to the ancient Greeks in the mid fifth century BC. Later, another scientist called Posidonius (135 B.C. 1. The world’s oldest surviving mechanical calculator is the Antikythera Mechanism. One of Aristarchus’ books that did survive is about the sizes and distances of the sun and moon. offers a remarkable window into the world as it was known to the ancient Greeks in the mid fifth century B.C. One of Aristarchus’ books that did survive is about the sizes and distances of the sun and moon. Among his many achievements was the earliest known calculation of the circumference of the Earth. Also, at the instant when the moon is at first or third quarter, Aristarchus reasoned that the sun, Earth, and moon would form a right-angled triangle. In this remarkable treatise, Aristarchus laid out the earliest known attempted calculations of the relative sizes and distances to the sun and moon. While his estimated distance to the Sun was too low (the actual ratio is 390), on account of the lack of telescopic precision available at the time, the value for the ratio of the size of the Earth to the Moon is surprisingly accurate (the Moon has a diameter 0.27 times that of Earth). Eratosthenes (276BC to … Gareth Dorrian, Post Doctoral Research Fellow in Space Science, University of Birmingham and Ian Whittaker, Lecturer in Physics, Nottingham Trent University, © 2011- 2020 ACM Marketplace.LLC All Rights Reserved. The voyage took several years. This even accounted for their retrograde motion – an illusionary change in the movement of planets through the sky. He recounts the story of Phoenician sailors who were dispatched by King Neco II of Egypt (about 600 B.C. Lakes on Titan. A few centuries later, there had been a lot of progress. Archaeological findings provide key proof of Chinese civilization origin, Analysis of Pompeii’s Garbage Suggests the Ancient Romans Recycled, Too. A few centuries later, there had been a lot of progress. One of Aristarchus’ books that did survive is about the sizes and distances of the Sun and Moon. Also, at the instant when the Moon is at first or third quarter, Aristarchus reasoned that the Sun, Earth, and Moon would form a right-angled triangle. Aristarchus of Samos (310BC to... 2. This story, if true, recounts the earliest known circumnavigation of Africa, but also contains an interesting insight into the astronomical knowledge of the ancient world. Nevertheless it is a jaw-dropping finding, especially when you consider that it wasn’t rediscovered until the 16th century, by Nicolaus Copernicus, who even acknowledged Aristarchus during the development of his own work. Gareth Dorrian August 22, 2020. A few centuries later, there had been a lot of progress. 4. One can but speculate where our civilization might be now if this ancient science had continued unabated. Herodotus claimed that Africa was surrounded almost entirely by sea. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Having rounded the southern tip of Africa, and following a westerly course, the sailors observed the sun as being on their right hand side, above the northern horizon. We don’t know who built it, but it dates to some time between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC, and may even have been the work of Archimedes. Given that 7.5 degrees is 1/48th of a circle, he multiplied the distance from Rhodes to Alexandria by 48, and arrived at a value also of approximately 40,000km. This observation simply did not make sense at the time because they didn’t yet know that the Earth has a spherical shape, and that there is a southern hemisphere. The Histories by Herodotus (484BC to 425BC) offers a remarkable window into the world as it was known to the ancient Greeks in the mid fifth century BC. April 27, 2020 April 27, 2020 Venkat Raman. The Sun is sufficiently far away that, wherever its rays arrive at Earth, they are effectively parallel, as had previously been shown by Aristarchus. The planets orbit the sun The amazing device was discovered in an ancient shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera in 1900. This is the earliest known heliocentric theory of the solar system. The sun is sufficiently far away that, wherever its rays arrive at Earth, they are effectively parallel, as had previously been shown by Aristarchus. The amazing device was discovered in an ancient shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera in 1900. Thank you for your support. By Gareth Dorrian, University of Birmingham and Ian Whittaker, Nottingham Trent University. He recounts the story of Phoenician sailors who were dispatched by King Neco II of Egypt (about 600BC), to sail around continental Africa, in a clockwise fashion, starting in the Red Sea. A few centuries later, there had been a lot of progress. There he observed the bright star Canopus would lie very close to the horizon. The world’s oldest surviving mechanical calculator is the Antikythera Mechanism. “The Histories” by Herodotus (484 B.C. Eratosthenes (276BC to 195 B.C.) 4. Eratosthenes used this to estimate the Earth’s circumference as approximately 40,000km. NASA. The device is now fragmented by the passage of time, but when intact it would have appeared as a box housing dozens of finely machined bronze gear wheels. Gearing technology with the sophistication of the Antikythera mechanism was not seen again for a thousand years. posted on 29 April 2020. He also estimated that the size of the Moon was approximately one-third that of Earth, based on careful timing of lunar eclipses. Unfortunately, the original text in which he makes this argument has been lost to history, so we cannot know for certain how he worked it out. When manually rotated by a handle, the gears spun dials on the exterior showing the phases of the moon, the timing of lunar eclipses, and the positions of the five planets then known (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) at different times of the year. In 2006, NASA’s Cassini-Huygens space research mission … The ancients made some jaw-dropping discoveries without modern technology. Sign up to get mail on latest Auctions, Discounts, Surprises .. Aethelflaed: who was the warrior queen who crushed the Vikings? As a tool for introducing scientific measurement, the techniques of Eratosthenes are relatively easy to perform and require no special equipment, allowing those just beginning their interest in science to understand by doing, experimenting and, ultimately, following in the footsteps of some of the first scientists. Water mills were a revolutionary invention and have been used all over the world for the purpose of metal shaping, agriculture and, most importantly, milling. Pythagoras is generally regarded as the earliest proponent of a spherical Earth, although apparently not its size. Eratosthenes used this to estimate the Earth’s circumference as approximately 25,000 miles (40,000 km). Favorite photos: December 2020’s waning moon and Venus, Astronomy Essentials | Human World | Space. Having rounded the southern tip of Africa, and following a westerly course, the sailors observed the Sun as being on their right hand side, above the northern horizon. One can but speculate where our civilisation might be now if this ancient science had continued unabated. was chief librarian at the Great Library of Alexandria, and a keen experimentalist. While his estimated distance to the sun was too low (the actual ratio is 390), on account of the lack of telescopic precision available at the time, the value for the ratio of the size of the Earth to the moon is surprisingly accurate (the moon has a diameter 0.27 times that of Earth). Four amazing astronomical discoveries from ancient Greece. Earth and Moon as seen by the Galileo spacecraft. Four Amazing Astronomical Discoveries From Ancient Greece Gareth Dorrian & Ian Whittaker , The Conversation April 25, 2020 The Histories by Herodotus (484BC to 425BC) offers a remarkable window into the world as it was known to the ancient Greeks in the mid fifth century BC. Image via NASA/ The Conversation. This is the earliest known heliocentric theory of the solar system. Ever since its invention, the water mill has seen a number of adaptations, which have enabled people to use it to mill differ… One of Aristarchus’ books that did survive is about the sizes and distances of the Sun and Moon. Four amazing astronomical discoveries from ancient Greece. Please, consider joining my Patreon Channel to support our Church and the poverty-stricken families that we help with charity! Eratosthenes’ famous and yet simple method relied on measuring the different lengths of shadows cast by poles stuck vertically into the ground, at midday on the summer solstice, at different latitudes. Aristarchus knew the Sun was much bigger than the Earth or the Moon, and he may have surmised that it should therefore have the central position in the solar system. They realised this from solar eclipses, caused by the Moon passing in front of the Sun at a certain distance from Earth. Read the original article. Four Amazing Astronomical Discoveries From Ancient Greece from The Conversation-- this post authorized by Gareth Dorrian, University of … Aristarchus of Samos (310BC to... 2. The amazing device was discovered in an ancient shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera in 1900. The amazing device was discovered in an ancient shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera in 1900. theconversation.com ¦ Apr 28, 2020 01:57:18 PM (IST) Earth and Moon as seen by the Galileo spacecraft. The Planets Orbit the Sun to 230 B.C.) The first astronomical calculator. The world’s oldest surviving mechanical calculator is the Antikythera Mechanism. 3. Posidonius lived on the island of Rhodes for much of his life. The Histories by Herodotus (484 BC to 425BC) offers a remarkable window into the world as it was known to the ancient Greeks in the mid fifth century BC. There he observed the bright star Canopus would lie very close to the horizon. 4. The world’s oldest surviving mechanical calculator is the Antikythera Mechanism.The amazing device was discovered in an ancient … A few centuries later, there had been a lot of progress. The size of the moon Photo by Robert Spurlock. Earth and Moon as seen by the Galileo spacecraft. This in turn led to the production of edible food staples like rice, cereals, pulses, flour, and so on. Origin, Analysis of Pompeii ’ s waning Moon and Venus, Astronomy Essentials | Human |. 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