[17]:11 Each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging the stem and a blade with entire (i.e., smooth) margins. The term ‘Food crops’ refers to plants,which provide food for human consumption, cultivated by man by agriculture.they mainly constitute of Cereals,Legumes,vegetables,tubers and fruits. Humans get an average of 48 percent of their calories, or food energy, from grains. Most belong to the Plant Division Angiospermae (also known as Anthophyta) which is commonly known as "the flowering plants". There are both C3 and C4 grasses, referring to the photosynthetic pathway for carbon fixation. [15][16], Grasses may be annual or perennial herbs,[17]:10 generally with the following characteristics (the image gallery can be used for reference): This excludes green beans and green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Lemongrass is a grass used as a culinary herb for its citrus-like flavor and scent. The evolution of large grazing animals in the Cenozoic contributed to the spread of grasses. Buckwheat Family (family: Polygonaceae) For more Buckwheat Family see the list of vegetables. A summary of the characteristics … The grass family is one of the most widely distributed and abundant groups of plants on Earth. Perennial cool-season – orchardgrass (cocksfoot. Grasses have long had significance in human society. [25] Asia - Asia - Trade: In ancient times, regions of Asia had commercial relations among themselves as well as with parts of Europe and Africa. Findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites from the latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) aged Lameta Formation of India have pushed this date back to 66 million years ago. [7] Grasses are also an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands, forests and tundra. Three general classifications of growth habit present in grasses: bunch-type (also called caespitose), stoloniferous, and rhizomatous. Agricultural grasses grown for their edible seeds are called cereals or grains (although the latter term, agriculturally, refers to both cereals and legumes). Grain is the harvested seed of grasses such as wheat, oats, rice, and corn.Other important grains include sorghum, millet, rye, and barley.Around the globe, grains, also called cereals, are the most important staple food. They provide, through direct human consumption, just over one-half (51%) of all dietary energy; rice provides 20%, wheat supplies 20%, maize (corn) 5.5%, and other grains 6%. Management of land an… Paul Robbins and Julie T. Sharp, "Producing and Consuming Chemicals: The Moral Economy of the American Lawn", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Cricket pitch § Preparation and maintenance of the playing area, "Dinosaur-associated Poaceae epidermis and phytoliths from the Early Cretaceous of China", "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", "The Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III: a linear sequence of the families in APG III", "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase", "Late Cretaceous origin of the rice tribe provides evidence for early diversification in Poaceae", 10.1130/0016-7606(1953)64[721:COLE]2.0.CO;2, "Pats sign Testaverde; Gillette Stadium's grass field replaced with Field Turf - USATODAY.com", "Cricket pitches Principles and practice of pitch preparation", The Introductory Reader in Human Geography, "Lawn Sprinkling Regulations in Metro Vancouver, BC, Canada", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Poaceae&oldid=993814781, Extant Early Cretaceous first appearances, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles needing additional references from March 2016, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Conversely, in the best growing areas an extraordinarily intensive agriculture is practiced, made possible by irrigating the alluvial soils of the great river deltas and valleys. [citation needed], Phragmites australis (common reed) is important for thatching and grass roots stabilize the sod of sod houses. Agrarian Structure. Food Mythbusters (United States) – Food Mythbusters is a campaign of the Real Food Media Project that seeks to dispel misconceptions about food production and promote reforms in industrial agriculture, unfair labor practices, and food advertising, among other issues. ... rain washes the ashes into the soil to provide needed nutrients. Grasses are, in human terms, perhaps the most economically important plant family. For other uses, see, Family of flowering plants commonly known as grasses. [13], Wu, You & Li (2018) described grass microfossils extracted from a specimen of the hadrosauroid dinosaur Equijubus normani from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Zhonggou Formation (China), which were found to belong to primitive lineages within Poaceae, similar in position to the Anomochlooideae. A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. Grasses are also eaten by omnivorous or even occasionally by primarily carnivorous animals. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Most people in Asia are farmers, owning an average of about 2.5 acres (1 hectare) of land per family. The term pulse, as used by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), is reserved for legume crops harvested solely for the dry seed. The relationships among the three subfamilies Bambusoideae, Oryzoideae and Pooideae in the BOP clade have been resolved: Bambusoideae and Pooideae are more closely related to each other than to Oryzoideae. Playing from the rough is a disadvantage because the long grass may affect the flight of the ball. the leading crop in the world, maize is grown primarily for purposes other than direct human consumption, especially as animal feed. A tiller is a leafy shoot other than the first shoot produced from the seed. [9] Grasses have adapted to conditions in lush rain forests, dry deserts, cold mountains and even intertidal habitats, and are currently the most widespread plant type; grass is a valuable source of food and energy for all sorts of wildlife and organics. Nepal is an agricultural country having 66 percent people directly engaged in farming. For example, members of the Fabaceae (legume family) can be grown to add nitrogen to the soil and many members of the Liliaceae are heavy users of potassium. [17]:13 A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea. [27] Three cereals—rice, wheat, and maize (corn)—provide more than half of all calories consumed by humans. 18. Asia, America, and Europe produce more than 80 percent of the world’s cereal grains. In the Aristida genus for example, one species (A. longifolia) is C3 but the approximately 300 other species are C4. In some sports facilities, including indoor domes and other places where maintenance of a grass field would be difficult, grass may be replaced with artificial turf, a synthetic grass-like substitute. Ornamental grasses, such as perennial bunch grasses, are used in many styles of garden design for their foliage, inflorescences, seed heads. The primary ingredient of beer is usually barley or wheat, both of which have been used for this purpose for over 4,000 years. [29], In cricket, the pitch is the strip of carefully mowed and rolled grass where the bowler bowls. [citation needed], Grass playing fields, courses and pitches are the traditional playing surfaces for many sports, including American football, association football, baseball, cricket, golf, and rugby. Grasses are used as raw material for a multitude of purposes, including construction and in the composition of building materials such as cob, for insulation, in the manufacture of paper and board such as Oriented structural straw board. [17]:11 The leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals; some, such as sword grass, are sharp enough to cut human skin. "Don't let the grass grow under your feet" tells someone to get moving. [17]:16 [26] See the full list of Poaceae genera. Grasses are also used in the manufacture of thatch, paper, fuel, clothing, insulation, timber for fencing, furniture, scaffolding and construction materials, floor matting, sports turf and baskets. Grasslands such as savannah and prairie where grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40.5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland and Antarctica. [citation needed]. [17]:11, Grass blades grow at the base of the blade and not from elongated stem tips. The current outbreak is the worst in recent decades. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. They also occur as a smaller part of the vegetation in almost every other terrestrial habitat. Help support true facts by becoming a member. Grasses are unusual in that the meristem is near the bottom of the plant; hence, grasses can quickly recover from cropping at the top. The name Poaceae was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895,[8]:7 based on the tribe Poeae described in 1814 by Robert Brown, and the type genus Poa described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. In tennis, grass is grown on very hard-packed soil, and the bounce of a tennis ball may vary depending on the grass's health, how recently it has been mowed, and the wear and tear of recent play. Origins of agriculture - Origins of agriculture - Agriculture in ancient Asia: On his way across the Pamirs in search of Buddhist texts (518 ce), the Chinese pilgrim Song Yun noted that the crest of the bare, cold, snowy highlands was commonly believed to be “the middle point of heaven and earth”: Yet, heaven provided. Most characteristic of developing countries. The success of the grasses lies in part in their morphology and growth processes and in part in their physiological diversity. [28] Cereals constitute the major source of carbohydrates for humans and perhaps the major source of protein, including rice (in southern and eastern Asia), maize (in Central and South America), and wheat and barley (in Europe, northern Asia and the Americas). By far the greater part of Asia remains uncultivated, primarily because climatic and soil conditions are unfavourable. King argued that this was the result of more slowly acting surface wash caused by carpets of grass which in turn would have resulted in relatively more soil creep. For example: A folk myth about grass is that it refuses to grow where any violent death has occurred. [citation needed] Nepal is richly endowed with agro-biodiversity. Buckwheat Goosefoot / Amaranth Family (family: Chenopodiacae / Amaranthaceae) Grass fiber can be used for making paper, and for biofuel production. Bananas resistant to bacterial wilt and nematodes Genetically modified bananas resistant to bacterial wilt are shown on the left (image A), while Non-GM bananas are shown on the right. Vietnam, Pakistan and Thailand are among the largest exporters of rice in Asia. Anthers detached from a meadow foxtail flower, "Grass" redirects here. Grass-dominated biomes are called grasslands. The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and millet as well as feed for meat-producing animals. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species,[4] the Poaceae is the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Fabaceae and Rubiaceae.[5]. The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla. Straw (and sometimes hay) may also be used as bedding for animals. Wu, You & Li considered the Barremian origin for grasses to be probable.[1]. [24] The following provides examples of GM crops in the pipeline that could make a difference for food-insecure people in the developing world. Wheat is among the oldest of the cultivated food crops. In fact, if all foods are considered together, enough is available to provide at least 4.3 pounds of food per person a day. Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. An agricultural society, 90% of the Maya population were involved in farming. Industrialized Agriculture. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species.Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption … The leaf grows from the base of the blade, an adaptation allowing it to cope with frequent grazing. As Virginia Jenkins, author of The Lawn, put it quite bluntly, 'Upper middle-class Americans emulated aristocratic society with their own small, semi-rural estates.' The traditional method of irrigation in Asia is by gravity water flow. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath. Conversely, in … During pruning, the chopped branches of acacia trees are usually used as manure to fertilise the soil. [31][32], Many US municipalities and homeowners' associations have rules which require lawns to be maintained to certain specifications, sanctioning those who allow the grass to grow too long. An entire industry revolves around the development and marketing of grass varieties for golf courses. Barley is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and malting. There are about 12,000 grass species in about 771 genera that are classified into 12 subfamilies. A cladogram shows subfamilies and approximate species numbers in brackets:[10], Before 2005, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago. Our Business. 1 The consumption of these cereals varies widely by region; wheat is the preferred cereal in Central Asia, the Middle East, South and North America, and Europe. And this estimate does not even count many other commonly eaten foods-vegetables, beans, nuts, root crops, fruits, grass-fed meats, and fish. "We usually have food all year round and surplus to sell. If only large, contiguous areas of grasslands are counted, these biomes cover 31% of the planet's land. Grass surfaces are also sometimes used for horse racing and tennis. Poaceae (/ p oʊ ˈ eɪ s i aɪ /) or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses.It includes the cereal … Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks. They have been grown as food for domesticated animals for up to 6,000 years and the grains of grasses such as wheat, rice, maize (corn) and barley have been the most important human food crops. Of all crops grown, 70% are grasses. Rice is the major crop for the majority of Asia, with the continent producing 90 percent of the rice used throughout the world. [citation needed] Marram grass (Ammophila arenaria). Paleozoic events in the continental nuclei, Mesozoic events in the continental nuclei, Mesozoic events in the circum-Pacific orogenic belts, Cenozoic events in the Alpide plate boundary zone and in the Arabian and Indian cratons, Cenozoic events in the island arcs and the marginal basins, Prehistoric centres and ancient migrations. Without large grazers, fire-cleared areas are quickly colonized by grasses, and with enough rain, tree seedlings. As another example, the whole tribe of Andropogoneae, which includes maize, sorghum, sugar cane, "Job's tears", and bluestem grasses, is C4.[10]. Southwest Asia crop hearth: Barley, Einkorn wheat, emmer wheat, lentil, oats, rye, bread wheat, broad bean, olive ... it is designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family. For the Maya, reliable food production was so important to their well-being that they closely linked the agricultural cycle to astronomy and religion. Grass on the fairway is mown short and even, allowing the player to strike the ball cleanly. The flowers are usually hermaphroditic—maize being an important exception—and mainly anemophilous or wind-pollinated, although insects occasionally play a role. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes.. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits (plantains, breadfruit, etc.) Many types of animals eat grass as their main source of food, and are called graminivores – these include cattle, sheep, horses, rabbits and many invertebrates, such as grasshoppers and the caterpillars of many brown butterflies. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a member of the grass family and it is a primary cereal grain that is cultivated throughout the world in regions with temperate climates. Grasses are the primary plant used in lawns, which themselves derive from grazed grasslands in Europe. Many species of grass are grown as pasture for foraging or as fodder for prescribed livestock feeds, particularly in the case of cattle, horses, and sheep. This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 17:10. [17]:11, Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each having one or more florets. Trampling grazers kill seedling trees but not grasses.[20]:137. Celery seed is also used as a spice and its extracts have been used in herbal medicine [35], Leaves of Poa trivialis showing the ligules, Bamboo stem and leaves, nodes are evident, Illustration depicting both staminate and pistillate flowers of maize (Zea mays). Pseudocereals are foods that can be used like grains, but come from plants that aren't related to the Grass Family. Sugarcane is the major source of sugar production. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. One … My children are healthy. Commercial agriculture. Without fertilizers, the world’s crop yields would be cut in half, and farmers around the world look to Mosaic to help keep their soils healthy, to nourish their crops and to maximize their yields. Trees eventually outcompete most grasses. Grass on the putting green is the shortest and most even, ideally allowing the ball to roll smoothly over the surface. In communities with drought problems, watering of lawns may be restricted to certain times of day or days of the week. a grass that yields grain for food. [citation needed] The surface is softer than hard courts and clay (other tennis surfaces), so the ball bounces lower, and players must reach the ball faster resulting in a different style of play which may suit some players more than others. Asia - Asia - Agriculture: By far the greater part of Asia remains uncultivated, primarily because climatic and soil conditions are unfavourable. In some places, particularly in suburban areas, the maintenance of a grass lawn is a sign of a homeowner's responsibility to the overall appearance of their neighborhood. One work credits lawn maintenance to: ...the desire for upward mobility and its manifestation in the lawn. The stems of grasses, called culms, are usually cylindrical (more rarely flattened, but not 3-angled) and are hollow, plugged at the nodes, where the leaves are attached. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Grasses are the dominant vegetation in many habitats, including grassland, salt-marsh, reedswamp and steppes. Legumes, root crops, and cereals other than rice can be grown even on land watered only by natural precipitation. member of the grass family; can grow 10 feet tall - sugar is collected from the stem. Grains are also used to feed livestock and to manufacture some cooking oils, … Rye is usually used as a livestock feed, but can be used in baking and distilling liquor. A spikelet consists of two (or sometimes fewer) bracts at the base, called glumes, followed by one or more florets. ... and Southeast Asia, rice is the most suitable crop for production in tropical climates. Grasses provide food to many grazing mammals—such as livestock, deer, and elephants—as well as to many species of butterflies and moths. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα (póa, "fodder"). [citation needed]Bamboo scaffolding is able to withstand typhoon-force winds that would break steel scaffolding. In general, the lawn was one of the primary selling points of these new suburban homes, as it shifted social class designations from the equity and ubiquity of urban homes connected to the streets with the upper-middle class designation of a "healthy" green space and the status symbol that is the front lawn. A lot of caloric efficiency is lost when crops are converted for animal feed and other non-food uses. "The grass is always greener on the other side" suggests an alternate state of affairs will always seem preferable to one's own. In most Asian countries, particularly in the low income countries of South Asia, per-capita food availability has risen. They became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, and fossilized dinosaur dung (coprolites) have been found containing phytoliths of a variety that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo. Grasses are found on every continent,[21][22] including Antarctica with the presence of Antarctic hair grass on the Antarctic Peninsula. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. ... popular human snack food but also a major oil crop - … The Poaceae are the world’s single most important source of food. [17][18] Grass leaves are nearly always alternate and distichous (in one plane), and have parallel veins. [citation needed] Grass lawns are an important covering of playing surfaces in many sports, including football (soccer), American football, tennis, golf, cricket, softball and baseball. Poaceae (/poʊˈeɪsiaɪ/) or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. A grass flower head (meadow foxtail) showing the plain-coloured flowers with large anthers. Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms. Farming is subsistent in nature and crop is mostly integrated with livestock. In Asia as a whole, food production has outpaced the growth of population. sugar beets. [citation needed] Among the world's most prestigious court for grass tennis is Centre Court at Wimbledon, London which hosts the final of the annual Wimbledon Championships in England, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. Important rituals and ceremonies were held in honour of specialised workers; from beekeepers to fishermen, and maize, the all-important Mesoamerican staple, even had its own god. There are hundreds of different crops grown for food around the world. [citation needed] While there are about a dozen cereal crops used for food, only wheat, maize, and rice are important human food sources, accounting for 94% of all cereal consumption. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species cultivated in lawns and pasture. The water from upstream storage reservoirs or diversion dams. The fruit of grasses is a caryopsis, in which the seed coat is fused to the fruit wall. [14] This separation occurred within the relatively short time span of about 4 million years. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. [17]:12 The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes. Crops that grow in Asia include rice, wheat, barley and tropical fruits such as litchi and pineapple. This low growth point evolved in response to grazing animals and allows grasses to be grazed or mown regularly without severe damage to the plant.[20]:113–114. They have been cultivated as feed for people and domesticated animals for thousands of years. Their economic importance stems from several areas, including food production, industry, and lawns. 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